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Finglish

Finglish

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Fiind vorba despre spicuirea neautorizată dintr-un unui articol în temă, menționat la urmă, și despre alterarea finlandezei și englezei de către imigranții finlandezi în America, am considerat logic și necesar să nu traduc textul tocmai pentru că în discuție este chiar limba engleză. Mai întâi despre fininglișul american, apoi despre cel finlandez, folosit de tineret și, abia la urmă, despre scopul paginii.

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Finglish (engl. Finnish + English) eli amerikansuomi tarkoittaa suomen kielen variantteja, joihin englannin kieli on voimakkaasti vaikuttanut, erityisesti Kanadaan ja Yhdysvaltoihin muuttaneiden suomalaisten siirtolaisten puhumaa kieltä. Amerikansuomi ei ole varsinainen pidgin eli sekakieli, niin kuin joskus näkee väitettävän, vaan amerikansuomalaisten keskinäiseen käyttöön syntynyt suomen kielen muoto.

Amerikansuomelle tyypillisiä ovat runsaat englannin kielestä tulleet lainat, jotka yleensä on mukautettu suomen kielen rakenteeseen (haussi ‘talo’ < engl. house, rapoli < engl. trouble, äpyli ‘omena’ < apple) mutta joissa voi esiintyä myös melkoista äänteellistä vaihtelua (panaana, pinaana, punaanus, plataatti ‘banaani’). Englannista on tullut myös käännöslainoja (ota huolen < engl. take care, vapaatie < engl. freeway, annettu nimi < engl. given name). Finglish poikkeaa suomen yleiskielestä paitsi amerikanenglannin vaikutuksen vuoksi myös siksi, että sen perustana ei ole nykysuomen yleiskieli vaan Amerikan-siirtolaisten pääjoukon puhuma 1800-luvun lopun suomalainen kansankieli. Siksi siinä voi olla myös suomen länsimurteille tyypillistä ruotsalaisperäistä sanastoa (hantuuki ‘pyyheliina’) tai omia uudissanoja, joiden vastinetta ei Suomesta tuodussa kotikielessä vielä ollut olemassa (ilmapiika ‘lentoemäntä’). Amerikan-suomea on kerännyt ja tutkinut mm. akateemikko Pertti Virtaranta.

Pohjois-Amerikan suomalaisten finglish syntyi Amerikan-siirtolaisuuden kultakaudella 1800-luvun loppupuolelta alkaen ja katoaa sitä mukaa kuin amerikansuomalaisten jälkeläiset unohtavat suomen kielen – yleensä tämä tapahtuu viimeistään kolmannessa sukupolvessa. Perinteinen Amerikan finglish on siis kuolemassa sukupuuttoon, mutta vastaavantapaisia voimakkaasti englanninvaikutteisia suomen kielen muotoja voi, ainakin pienemmissä piireissä, syntyä vastakin. „Fingliskaksi” näkeekin joskus nimitettävän esimerkiksi tietokonealan ja nuorison kielenkäyttöä, jossa vilisee englannin kielestä lainattua sanastoa.

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The Great Famine of the late 1860’s in Finland was a catalyst for widespread emigration. The famine had a devastating effect on Finland’s economy and was especially difficult for the landless. The large migration wave lasted from the early 1880’s through the start of World War I, when tens of thousands of Finns emigrated to America. Most Finnish immigrants worked in the mines or the lumber industry, and many later became farmers. By 1930, there were 142,478 persons in the United States of Finnish birth, 148,532 people with Finnish parents, and 29,526 Americans of part-Finnish parentage. This adds up to 320,536 potential speakers of Finglish in the United States, with 124,994 reporting Finnish as their mother tongue.

When two languages abruptly come into contact with each other, change can happen quickly, especially if speakers of the foreign language become isolated from their homeland. A sentence such as Pussaa peipipoki petirummasta kitsiin (Push the babybuggy from the bedroom to the kitchen) was quite startling to Finns in Finland as it contained not a single Finnish word. A new dialect, Finglish, was born.

Artturilla on paita uunissa. Translated from Finnish this meant: Arthur has a shirt in the oven. However, translated from Finglish, the sentence makes a lot more sense: Arthur has a pie in the oven.

All speakers are looking for the best, most suitable ways to express themselves. Foreign lexical elements are inserted where there is a lack of at-present vocabulary on the part of the speaker. In the case of peipipoki (baby buggy), the Finglish speaker is already using the Swedish loanword peipi which would soon become archaic in Finland. The English-speaking environment reinforced the root word, peipi, and introduced the novel concept of buggy, so it is perhaps unsurprising that peipipoki was used in place of the proper lastenvaunu. There was no immediate Finnish feedback so the new American dialect was allowed to flourish unabated. It would have been impossible to keep the „pure” Finnish with all of the new experiences and having to cope with unfamiliar circumstances. By the time new words got to America, such as lentokone for airplane, Finglish had already invented the word ilmalaiva. Neither speakers of Finnish nor English can understand Finglish without training or practice, especially if the Finnish speaker does not know any English. There are idiosyncrasies in different Finglish-speaking communities (garage has been documented as krääts, kraatsi, räätsi, and raatsi). However, there is enough consistency in Finglish for it to be considered a single dialect.

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English        Finglish

Karen           Kareni

fork              vorkka

car                kaara

lawyer          loijari

room             ruuma

heart attack   haartätäkki

to serve         sörvata

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For example, Germanic loan-words that started with /#skr, #str, #spr, #kr, #tr, #pr, #gr, #dr, #br/ were all transformed to the simple /#r/

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If a word in English begins with two or three consonants, all but the last consonant will be deleted.

English        Finglish

trouble          rapoli

stove            touvi

stripe            raippi

grocery         rosseri

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The voiced stops were replaced by their voiceless counterparts.

English        Finglish

yard              jaarti

lumber          lumperi

beer              piiri

garbage         karpetsi

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If a word has three contiguous vowels, including the vowel that will be added to fit the word into the Finnish affix structure, it is broken up by either inserting a glide /j/ or a stop /t/.

English        Finglish

pie                paita

to play          leijata

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The palato-alveolar affricates /č ĵ/ : (ch as in church and j as in jar) become de-palatized to /ts/ before a short vowel:

English         Finglish

garage          raatsi

become a long fricative /ss/ after /n/:

English        Finglish

orange          orenssi

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The palato-alveolar fricatives /š ž/: (sh as in shoot and z as in azure) become /s/:

English        Finglish

shower          sauveri

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The interdental fricatives /θ đ/: (th as in the) Become /t/:

English        Finglish

birthday        pörtteri

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The unvoiced fricative /f/ becomes a voiced fricative /v/:

English        Finglish

forest            voresti

The English glide /w/ is replaced by /v/:

English        Finglish

wire              vairata

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Stops in final position are lengthened

English        Finglish

suit               suutti

drink             rinkki

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English        Finglish

apartment      paartmentti

department    parmentti

garage          raatsi

account         kaunt/kauntti

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English vowels become long vowels or diphthongs Long vowels

English        Finglish

freezer          riisari

cake             keeki

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Diphthongs

English        Finglish

frame            reimi

stove            touvi

kt > ht does not effect Finglish words

In traditional Finnish, when words were borrowed into the language, /kt/ becomes /kh/. The Swedish inspektor > pehtori and architect > arkkitehti. However, Finglish has abandoned this rule. The English verb collect has become kollektaa in Finglish, even though there is a word kolehti in Finnish, which refers to the offertory at a church service (i.e. the collection plate).

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Finglish adjectives

Finglish        English        Modern Finnish

roffi              rough            epätasainen

toffi              tough            sitkeä

pisi               busy             touhukas or kiire

smartti          smart            älykäs

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Finglish plural confusion

English        Finglish (in plural construction)           Modern Finnish

towels           tulsut           pyyhkä

cookies         kukeksia       pikkuleipä

crackers        kräköksiä      keksi

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New innovations and idioms

English        Finglish        Modern Finnish               Notes

area code      aluekoodi      suuntanumero                 This construction combines the Finnish word for area and the Finglish word for code.

airplane        ilmalaiva       lentokone

atom             atomi            ydin or atomi                     Though atomi is not improper Finnish, the word ydin would be unfamiliar to an American Finn.

walker          volkkeri        kävelyteline                         The walking aid used by senior citizens.

pace-maker   peismeikkeri        tahdistin

computer      kompuuteri   tietokone

bootlegger     puutlekkeri    trokari.

Russian citizens                Ryssät          Venäläiset     This reflects cold war attitudes in America

soviet           soviet           neuvostoliito

undertaker     hautaantoimittaja                                 This word literally means person who provides a grave for the dead one. There is no corresponding occupation in Finland.

telephone      jouru kello    puhelin                             This word literally means ‘gossip bell’and was used in Northern Michigan

small tractor  rapapassi      traktori                             Translates literally to ‘mud bus’. Contains both the Finnish ‘rapa’ and Finglish ‘passi.’ Used near Bruce’s Crossing, Michigan.

refrigerator    jääpaksi        jääkaapi                            Translates literally to ‘ice box’. Contains both the Finnish ‘jää’ and Finglish ‘paksi.’

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Finglish verbs

Finglish        English        Modern Finnish

ritairata         to retire         vetäytyä

rikomentata   to recommend  suostiella

pikka            to pick up     kerää

pläännäta      to plan          suunnitella

juusata          to use           käyttää

piilata           to peel          hilseillä

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Pick up the eggs became Pikkaa munat instead of the proper Kerää munat.

The English expression hurry up has been economized into one Finglish verb: horioppi.

The English idiom stick out like a sore thumb [a fi ca musca-n lapte] has been known to be translated literally into the unusual kuin kipeä peukalo.

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Finglish-English code switching from Fox, Montana:

„Paappa is vit his ractori butting the heinä in da paana”

„I vould like to puy a bare of klopes (gloves)”

„Dat boor peipi vas left on da seitvooki krying so muts”

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Finglish-English code switching from Chassell, Michigan

„Too pits” (two bits)

„Pig rout in mall ricks” (big trout in small creeks)

„Ko dis vay tu akat peets” (Agate Beach)

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Apud Finglish, by Kent Randell

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Pentru încheierea capitolului ar mai trebui adăugate furculisionele și fripturisioanele imigranților finlandezi care au ajuns să vorbească engleza învățată după ureche, dar asta ar însemna o altă pagina din istoria finlandezilor în America.

O explicație a situației aste și aceea că finlandezul a venit cu regulile limbii de acasă, în care nu încăpeau regulile limbii locale. Trebuia să se descurce cu prepoziții, pe care acasă nu le avea, cu cuvinte terminate în consoană, când ale lui se terminau, toate, în vocală, să ajungă să pronunțe cuvinte care încep cu două sau mai multe consoane, când acasă cuvintele lui nu începeau doar cu o singură consoană, să pună accentul aiurea, altfel decât pe prima silabă, să caute partitivul pe care engleza nu-l cunoaște și multe, multe altele. Dintr-o cercetare personală am ajuns la concluzia că dificultatea lor de a pronunța cuvinte străine nu rezultă exclusiv din conformația aparatului fonator, ci și din faptul că ei NU AUD corect cuvintele. Finlandezul care le aude corect, vorbește corect limba străină.

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Doar două vorbe despre tendința tineretului finlandez de a crea un slang urban bazat pe anglisme.

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Nykysuomalainen ei voi välttyä englannin kieleltä, jota näkee lehdissä ja mainoksissa ja kuulee radiosta ja televisiosta. Englanti ujuttuu helposti englannille altistuvan suomen kieleen. Erityisesti englannille altistuvat ne, joiden opiskeluala on kansainvälinen ja jotka lukevat englanninkielisiä tenttikirjoja ja ehkä kirjoittavat opinnäytteensäkin englanniksi. Hyvinkin suomea taitava voi tahattomasti kirjoittaa suomea englantilaisittain.

Englannin kieli on eräänlainen sanaston sulatusuuni. Englanti on kehittynyt germaaniselta pohjalta, mutta siihen on tullut laajoina kerrostumina ranskalaista ja kreikkalais-latinalaista sanastoa. Anglismi voidaan määritellä ilmaukseksi, joka englannin kielen välityksellä on levinnyt kansainväliseen käyttöön. Nykyään englanti on johtava kieli esim. lääketieteen, elektroniikan, avaruustekniikan, kansainvälisen kaupan, mainonnan, lentomatkailun ja merenkulun alalla sekä lisäksi radion, television, elokuvan ja tietotekniikan piirissä. Suomi on ollut vasta suhteellisen vähän aikaa suorissa kontakteissa englantia puhuvan maailman kanssa.

Vanhemmat englantilaisperäiset lai-nat pyrittiin tavallisesti mukauttamaan kotoisten sanojen malliin, esim. pihvi (beef), priki (brig), vinssi (winch). Uudempia kieleemme mukautuneita sanoja ovat esim. hitti, jeeppi, meikki, spotti, toppi. Alkuperäisen asunsa säilyttäneitä tai vain hieman suomalaistettuja ovat esim. happening, cowboy, jockey, speedway. Mukauttamisen suomen kieleen estää usein anglismien äänneasu. Myös anglismien oikeinkirjoitus ja taivutus on monesti hankalaa. Miten esim. pitäisi taivuttaa atk-alalla yleisesti käytettyä sanaa software  ‘(varus)ohjelmisto’? Usein yritykset mukauttaa tällaisia sanoja johtavat vain slangimaisiin väännöksiin, kuten softis, softa.

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Desigur că HyväYstävä o să se mire: ce i-o fi venit să umple o pagină cu treburile altora de aiurea. Dar, ai ghicit! Altul e scopul paginii.

Scopul paginii nu este, nici pe departe, acela de a critica o situație prin care au trecut toți imigranții Americii, printre ei și români, ci acela de a sugera românilor din Finlanda să evite astfel de situații prin inventarea unor cuvinte românești despre unele realități finlandeze precum reikäleipä care a devenit pâine cu gaurăvälihousut – pantaloni intermediarileipäjuusto – brânză lipievaratuomari – arbitru de rezervă; [au mai încercat și alții chiar în România, vezi gâtlegău și nassuflete]. Sunt de părere (ideea mea fixă) că românul din Finlanda trebuie să gândească și să vorbească și în familie, în românește despre realitățile românești și în finlandeză despre realitățile finlandeze, fără să încerce să găsească, sau să creeze un cuvânt inexistent în română pentru o realiate finlandeză. Nici vorbirea amestecată, un cuvânt de ici, altul de colo nu aș recomanda-o pentru că despre asta vorbește toată pagina.

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Deosebirea dintre situația imigranților americani și situația românilor din Finlanda este esențială; acolo era vorba despre mari comunități de aceeași limbă, comunități obligate să comunice cu localnicii, în timp ce aici e vorba doar de o mică comunitate numită familie, în care se pot vorbi corect, după circumstanțe, ambele limbi.

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Introdus / lisätty 10.4.2019

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