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Ziua 09

Filed under: Limba finalndeză comentată — blogulblog @ 22:26

Ziua 09


Adaos la „Ce nu se spune studenților la cursul de finlandeză”, iar la „Bibliografie”: Saukkonen, Pauli, & Co: Suomen kielen taajuussanakirja – A Frequency Dictionary of Finnish.

File noi:  Gândind în finlandeză ne facem înţeleşi corect”, „O sută / o mie de cuvinte finlandeze trebuincioase, în ordinea frecvenței



Chiar dacă părintele limbii finlandeze este considerat Mikael Agricola, după el o pleiadă de lingviști a continuat opera de înnobilare a limbii. Mai jos am spicuit câțiva.


Lingviști finlandezi de vază


Matthias Alexander Castrén

born Dec. 2, 1813, Tervola, Fin., Russian Empire died May 7, 1852, Helsinki

Finnish nationalist and pioneer in the study of remote Arctic and Siberian Uralic and Altaic languages. He also championed the ideology of Pan-Turanianism—the belief in the racial unity and future greatness of the Ural-Altaic peoples.

After many years of field research in Siberia, Castrén made important contributions to the study of the lesser-known Uralic, Altaic, and Paleo-Siberian languages. He further concluded that the Finns originated in Central Asia and that, far from being a small, isolated people, they were part of a larger polity that included such groups as the Magyars, the Turks, and the Mongols. This belief was accepted by the Finnish nationalists after Castrén, himself a zealous nationalist, made his views public in 1849 and lent great impetus to the advancement of Finnish language study in Finland. Castrén occupied the first chair in Finnish at the University of Helsinki (1851) and became university chancellor the following year. His most significant and lasting contribution is his detailed analysis of individual Samoyedic languages, which provided the first sound comparative basis for uniting the Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic languages into a common Uralic family.


Sakari Yrjö-Koskinen

(Eino Sakari (E. S.) Yrjö-Koskinen (sukunimi vuoteen 1882 Forsman, 3. lokakuuta 1858 Hämeenkyrö – 10. tammikuuta 1916 Helsinki)

Finnish politician, original name Georg Zacharias Forsman

historian and politician, author of the first history of Finland in Finnish. Later he guided the Old Finn Party in its policy of compliance with Russia’s unconstitutional Russification program in Finland.

Forsman—later, when he was made a baron, named Yrjö-Koskinen—was a nationalist scholar and a member of the mid-19th-century Fennoman Party, which advocated the development of the Finnish language and its ascendancy over the Swedish of Finland’s dominant minority. In his Suomen kansan historia (1869–72; “Finnish National History”) he demonstrated that Finnish was a suitable language for higher cultural …


Elias Lönnrot

born April 9, 1802, Sammatti, Swedish Finland died March 19, 1884, Sammatti, Russian Finland

folklorist and philologist who created the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala (1835, enlarged 1849), from short ballads and lyric poems collected from oral tradition. He also published Kanteletar (1840–41; “Old Songs and Ballads of the Finnish People”) and collections of proverbs, riddles, and incantations.


Kanteletar - nimikkösivu


Lönnrot received a medical degree from the University of Helsinki (1832). In 1833 he became a district medical officer at Kajaani, in a remote part of eastern Finland, near Russian Karelia, where he remained for 20 years. During this time he made field trips among the Sami, the Estonians, and the Finnish tribes of northwestern Russia and collected evidence of the relationship of the Baltic branches of the Finno-Ugric languages as well as folk poetry. Believing that the short poems he collected were fragments of a continuous epic of which no full version survived, he joined a number of them together with connective material of his own and imposed upon this a unifying plot. Though his method is frowned upon by many scholars, the influence of the Kalevala on Finnish national consciousness, art, and culture has been immense.

Lönnrot was professor of Finnish language and literature at the University of Helsinki (1853–62). As a leader of the national revival movement, he promoted Finnish as a national language (Swedish had previously been predominant) and paved the way for the birth of modern Finnish literature.


Johan Vilhelm Snellman

born May 12, 1806, Stockholm, Swed. died July 4, 1881, Kirkkonummi, Fin.

Finnish nationalist philosopher and statesman who was an important figure in the movement to establish Finnish as a national language.

In 1835, when Snellman became a philosophy instructor at the University of Helsinki, Finland was a grand duchy of Russia (1809–1917) and Swedish was the language of cultivated people. That same year the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala, was published, thus initiating interest in establishing a national literature in Finnish. From the 1840s Snellman led the movement for the adoption of Finnish as the mother tongue and insisted that Finnish be allowed in government offices and schools.

In 1842 he published Läran om staten (“Political Science”), which was influenced deeply by the philosophy of G.W.F. Hegel and in which he advanced the idea that the essence of a state is a national spirit. His influence as a stimulator of the national cultural life began in 1844 with the publication in Finnish of his Maamiehen ystävä (“Farmer’s Friend”) and a Swedish-language newspaper that was suppressed in 1846. Later, with Elias Lönnrot, the scholar and folklorist who compiled the Kalevala, he edited the Litteraturblad för allmän medborgerlig bildning (“Literary News for General Civic Culture”). He was appointed a professor at the University of Helsinki in 1856 and from 1863 to 1868 served as a senator. Snellman exerted a decisive influence on the promulgation of the 1863 statute extending the use of Finnish. He also helped to change the Finnish monetary standard from rubles to marks (1865). His Kootut teokset (“Collected Works”) appeared in 1928–33.


Kaarlo Bergbom

born Oct. 2, 1843, Vyborg, Russia died Jan. 17, 1906, Helsinki, Fin.

activist in the struggle to enhance Finnish-language institutions, and founder-director of the first stable Finnish-language theatre, the Finnish National Theatre. Bergbom, himself the author of a romantic tragedy, directed the first performance of Aleksis Kivi’s one-act biblical drama Lea (1869), the event cited as the beginning of professional theatre in the Finnish language.

In 1872 Bergbom founded the Finnish National Theatre as a touring troupe; with the lifelong assistance of his sister, Emilie, he managed the theatre until his death. During the first year of its existence, the National Theatre performed 36 plays, of which only 13, all single-act, were native works; by its 20th season the ratio was reversed, two-thirds of the plays being Finnish and including the premieres of six full-length Finnish plays. Bergbom also produced notable Finnish versions of classics and works by foreign authors, among them the first Finnish-language productions of Shakespeare (Romeo and Juliet, 1881) and Goethe (Faust, 1885). In 1902 a permanent building was constructed in Helsinki as home for the theatre. Bergbom was assisted in his endeavours by such company members as the actress Ida Aalberg and by the important Finnish playwright Minna Canth, whose works concerning the emancipation of women were premiered by the company.


Fennoman movement (echivalentul curentului purist din România)

in 19th-century Finnish history, nationalist movement that contributed to the development of the Finnish language and literature and achieved for Finnish a position of official equality with Swedish—the language of the dominant minority.

Early Fennomen activities included the establishment of the Saturday Society (1830) and the Finnish Literary Society (1831), both devoted to Finnish language and letters. The publication of Elias Lönnrot’s epic, the Kalevala (1835), and other artistic and scholarly works in Finnish proved to the opposition Svecoman, or Swedish, movement that Finnish could serve as a vehicle for cultural development.

Because the Russian authorities (Finland was then under imperial Russian rule) were generally sympathetic to the Fennoman cause, steady progress was made in the course of the century, especially during the reign of Tsar Alexander II (1855–81). In 1863, at the urging of Johan Vilhelm Snellman, the leading figure of the movement, Alexander II declared Finnish to be an official language of Finland in matters relating to the interests of Finnish-speaking people, and he ordered that it gain governmental and judicial parity with Swedish by 1883. In 1902 a Russian decree declared Finnish to be the official language of all areas where Finnish speakers.


Emil Nestor Setälä (1864-1935)

Emil Nestor Setälää pidetään Suomen kuuluisimpana kielentutkijana. Hänen vaikutuksensa ulottui 1880-luvulta hänen kuolemaansa, jopa aina 1960-luvulle asti ja tähänkin päivään siinä mielessä, että hän ideoi fennistiikan suuret sanakirjatyöt, jotka jatkuvat edelleen erityisesti Suomen murteiden sanakirjan osalta. Hän määräsi pitkään suomen kielen ja kirjallisuuden tutkimussuunnan Helsingin yliopiston professorina. Kansanedustajana, senaattorina ja ministerinä hän oli luomassa itsenäisen Suomen kulttuuripolitiikkaa ja perustuslakeja. Hän kirjoitti jopa Suomen itsenäistymisjulistuksen. Emil Nestor Setälää pidetään Suomen kuuluisimpana kielentutkijana. Hänen vaikutuksensa ulottui 1880-luvulta hänen kuolemaansa, jopa aina 1960-luvulle asti ja tähänkin päivään siinä mielessä, että hän ideoi fennistiikan suuret sanakirjatyöt, jotka jatkuvat edelleen erityisesti Suomen murteiden sanakirjan osalta.

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